Current Listings: 6,181
Average List Price: 959,834
Open Houses: 571

Currency: New Zealand dollar
Population: 3,862,000
Capital: Wellington

New Zealand

Real Estate Practices in New Zealand

Overview of The New Zealand Real Estate Market

Until the 1980s the most common form of housing was single story, stand-alone dwellings surrounded by relatively large gardens. Predominantly the framing and cladding of these homes was timber. While some homes were built on leasehold land the majority stood on freehold land.

In the past three decades as city populations have risen and land has become more scarce, a far greater variety of housing and land ownership situations have developed, including in-fill housing on larger sections, apartments, flats and terrace housing. With these developments has come a greater variation to land ownership on which properties sit, including cross lease and common ownership.

Along with new housing becoming larger, finished to extremely high standards and to modern, international designs, the sections on which they sit have become smaller. Older homes, particularly those in the inner city suburbs or with desirable features such as commanding views, have been extensively remodeled.

In the past two decades Auckland has rapidly developed as a large, multi-cultural, international city and residential house prices have increased rapidly, and are significantly higher than in any other New Zealand centre.


 
Buying and Selling Real Estate in New Zealand

While individuals can sell their own residential property as private individuals, all but a few properties are sold through licensed real estate agencies and agents.

Real estate agencies and agents are controlled through the independent Government agency, the Real Estate Agents Authority (REAA).  This body sits under the Justice Department, and its aim is to set high standards of service and professionalism for buyers and sellers.  It deals with complaints about agency and agents’ behavior.

The Real Estate Institute of New Zealand (REINZ) is a voluntary association representing the interests of licensed real estate agents, and operates a Code of Practice to which agencies and individuals members are required to practice.

To operate as a real estate agent, practioners must be qualified and licensed.


The Buying of Residential Property By Non-New Zealand Residents

To protect the interest of future generations, the Overseas Investment Office (OIO) assesses applications from non-residents seeking to invest in assets valued at NZ$100m or more, or what is termed sensitive land.

This means that in reality there are no restrictions on non-New Zealand residents purchasing residential property.

However, from October 1 2015, all non-resident purchasers will be required to obtain an Inland Revenue Number, and to achieve this they will need to open a local bank account. This move is designed to provide the Government with details as to the extent to which non-residents are buying residential property.

The main providers of residential mortgage lending are trading banks. Each has its own lending criteria, but trading bank operations fall under the overall financial management of the country’s Reserve Bank. Most of the larger banks have specialist divisions which assist non New Zealand residents to understand and comply with the country’s house buying rules as they apply to residents.

Currently, the Reserve Bank requires mortgage lenders to only lend to buyers who can make a down payment of 20% of the purchase price. In Auckland, the 20% rule applies to those who will reside in the house. However, investors must make a down payment of 30%.


Property Taxes in New Zealand

There are no property taxes or stamp duty associated with buying or selling a house. In extremely rare instances GST of 15% can apply to property that is classified as business related.

New Zealand has no capital gains tax associated with selling a house. However, if a house is purchased with the intention of making a profit on sale, then normal tax rules apply. The Government has recently instructed the Inland Revenue Department to review all property sales made within two years of purchase with a view to assessing whether normal tax rules should be applied to any capital gain.

 It is normal to seek legal and accounting advice when buying and selling property to ensure those involved with the transaction understand their legal and financial commitments and responsibilities.

Owners of all residential property pay a yearly ‘rate’ to their territorial local authority to fund the activities of the authority. These rates are struck by each territorial authority based on its yearly operating budget, and the level of payment is normally based on the value of the property. The rate level between territorial areas can differ significantly.

To assist local authorities strike rates every property is valued every three years by a State agency. The valuations are based on a combination of recent sales prices, formal valuations and mass appraisal systems. These valuations are a reasonable indicator of what the market value of the property might be.


The Buyer’s Costs in New Zealand

The buyer’s only additional cost to the purchase price is their lawyer’s fee, which will cover the legal transfer of the property, a search of legal title and mortgage agreements. Some banks charge a set-up fee associated with the establishment of a mortgage.

There is no standard scale of fees for what lawyers might charge for their services. Some online providers offer ‘fixed’ fees of under NZ$1000, but lawyers are free to set their own fees, and normal practice is to ask about fee levels before engaging a lawyer.

It is good practice for the buyer to obtain various reports. The most common are:

a) builder’s report, which reviews the structural integrity of the property

b) water tightness report, which covers potential water or leaking issues

c) valuation, which estimates the value of the house, normally obtained for mortgage purposes

d) LIM report, which gives a substantial amount of statutory information about the property.

(Sellers sometimes pay for these reports to assist in the sales process.)

On reaching agreement on the sale of a property, a deposit of 10% of the purchase price is normally paid by the buyer to the seller’s agent, and this money is placed in the agent’s trust account until the transaction is completed.


The Seller’s Costs in New Zealand

The seller pays the agent’s fee, and often an agreed additional fee covering promotional costs.

Agent fees vary between real estate companies, and are competitive. Fees are normally based on the selling price achieved, with the fee being paid only on the successful sale of the property.

Barfoot & Thompson commission fees are as follows:

On the first $300,000 of the purchase price 3.95%

On the balance of the purchase price 2.0%

Minimum commission rate of $8000 + GST

Our commission rates are among the most competitive in the market, and full details are available at www.barfoot.co.nz/sell/our-commission-rates.

Examples are:

Selling price ($NZ)                            Commission ($NZ)

$500,000                                              $18,228

$750,000                                              $23,978

$1 million                                             $29,728

$1.5 million                                         $41,228

$2 million                                             $52,728

$5 million                                             $121,728

These figures are inclusive of GST of 15%.

The seller also pays their own lawyers legal fees for handling the transaction.

 

The Role of the Agent and Sales Process

The two main forms of sale are negotiated sale and sale by auction.

In a negotiated sale the seller, in consultation with the agent, will set a selling price. The agent will conduct negotiations around price. When a price is agreed the agent will process the signing of primary sale and purchase agreements.

From that point on, lawyers for each party will liaise to complete the agreement and the transfer of title/money.

Auctions (which is the main sales method in Auckland but not the rest of the country) operates differently to a negotiated sale. The seller nominates a ‘reserve price’ which is unknown to potential buyers. If the reserve price is met the sale is completed at the fall of the hammer. If the reserve is not met the highest bidder has first right to conduct a negotiated sale.

When a property is sold at auction a 10% deposit is made to the selling agent immediately, with the final settlement taking place as outlined in the auction documentation.

Auctions are conducted under strict, transparent rules. At Barfoot & Thompson auctions vendor bids are not permitted, and telephone bidding is accepted only if the telephone bidder is pre-registered.  An agent is permitted to bid on behalf of a buyer. Our auctioneers only accept what they believe are genuine bids.

The real estate agent acts as the liaison point between the buyer (and buyer’s lawyer) and seller (and seller’s lawyer), conducts the final pre-sale inspection with the buyer, and delivers the keys to the buyer after the lawyers have transferred money and title.

Acacia Bay

Ahuriri

Ahuroa

Akina

Akitio

Albany

Albany Heights

Albury

Algies Bay

Allenton

Amberley

Amberley Beach

Aokautere

Aramoho

Ararimu

Ardmore

Arkles Bay

Army Bay

Ashburton

Ashhurst

Ashley

Athenree

Auckland

Avondale

Awapuni

Awatuna

Awhitu

Awhitu Central

Awhitu Peninsula

Bankside

Barrytown

Bastia Hill

Bay View

Bayswater

Bayview

Beach Haven

Beachlands

Belmont

Benneydale

Big Bay

Birchfield

Birkdale

Birkenhead

Birkenhead Point

Blackball

Blackhead

Blacks Point

Blaketown

Blockhouse Bay

Blue Spur

Bombay

Botany Downs

Brookby

Browns Bay

Brunswick

Buckland

Bucklands Beach

Buller Surrounds

Bulls

Bunnythorpe

Burkes Pass

Burswood

Cable Bay

Camberley

Cambridge

Camerons

Campbells Bay

Cape Foulwind

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Carterton

Castlecliff

Castlepoint

Castor Bay

Cave

Central

Central Hawkes Bay

Charleston

Chatswood

City

City Centre

Claremont

Clareville

Clarks Beach

Clendon

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Clevedon

Clive

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Cloverlea

Coal Creek

Coatesville

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Coldstream

College Estate

Conifer Grove

Coopers Beach

Cornwallis

Coromandel

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Dairy Flat

Dannemora

Dannevirke

Darfield

Dargaville

Denniston

Devonport

Dillmanstown

Dobson

Drury

Dunollie

Durie Hill

East Tamaki

East Tamaki Heights

Eastern Beach

Eastside

Eden Terrace

Eketahuna

Ellerslie

Enfield

Epsom

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Favona

Featherston

Feilding

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Fitzherbert

Flat Bush

Flaxmere

Flemington

Forrest Hill

Fox River

Foxton

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Franz Josef

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Frimley

Galatea

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Haumoana

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Havelock North

Hector

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Hikurangi

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Hillcrest

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Levels

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Lynfield

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Mangere

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Marchwiel

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Nadi - Fiji

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Point View

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Roslyn

Ross

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Rotorua

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Ruakaka

Ruatapu

Runanga

Russell

Rutherglen

Sandringham

Sandspit

Sanson

Schnapper Rock

Scotts Landing

Seaview

Seddonville

Sefton

Shannon

Shelly Beach

Shelly Park

Shirley

Shoal Bay

Silverdale

Snells Beach

Somerville

South Head

Springvale

St Heliers

St Johns

St Johns Hill

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St Leonards

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Staveley

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Taiko

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Taupo

Taupo Central

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Te Aroha

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Te Poi

Temple View

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Terrace End

The Gardens

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Tikipunga

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Waterview

Wattle Downs

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Welcome Bay

Wellsford

West End

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Westbrook

Western Springs

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Westshore

Westside

Weymouth

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Whanganui Central

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Whangarei Area

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Whangaroa

Whataroa

Whau Valley

Whenuapai

Whiritoa

Whitford

Winchmore

Windsor Park

Winslow

Wiri

Woodend

Woodhill

Woodside

Woodville

Woolston

Wynyard Quarter

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